Nickerson and Macher Talk About Their Survey, and About PAT as a Disruptive Force an article, (raw) audio interview, and related background material on  Note an embedded link within the article to Professor Macher's article on "disruptive manufacturing methodologies" in the semiconductor industry---methodologies that accelerate learning, and, once adopted, increase the rate of process improvement. Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) fit that category within pharma, he says, but won't provide overnight results. -AMS