Traditional large scale pharmaceutical manufacturing operations use manual or fixed automation to prepare large volumes of reagent, storing them in large tanks. Such production-scale mixing of process fluids is much more difficult than at the bench-scale, where solutions and reagents typically are developed and optimized. Many individual mixing protocol steps, such as the addition of large volumes of water, can achieve no better than 2% accuracy. Measurement variability is another problem, reflecting variations in instrument resolution, sampling error, and intrinsic temperature and concentration gradation within tanks. Together, these factors can add another 2-3% to total process variability. Further, variability in raw material quality only increases total process variability, which, in turn is reflected in variable purity, potency, yield and recovery for final product. Such variability is a key contributor to many pharmaceutical companies' need for a "hidden factory," or an extensive non-value-adding infrastructure, to ensure product quality and safety (Figure 1).