Change-Averse Pharma and FDA, and Some Tips from Machiavelli

There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, or more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new system. For the initiator has the enmity of all who profit by preservation of the old institutions and merely lukewarm defenders in those who should gain by the new ones. ”Niccolò Machiavelli, 1527 It will take time to change risk-averse pharma and the old guard who resist modernization and improvement, within the industry and FDA.  Contributing Editor Emil Ciurczak wrote about this recently.